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Who are PASHTUNS ?

The Pashtuns, historically known as ethnic Afghans (1.2.3) mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan. (4). They speak the Pashto Language and adhere to Pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct.

Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, (5) but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979. The majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, which has been split between the two countries since the British-imposed Durand Line border was formed. There are also significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the cities of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular Karachi and Lahore.

 A recent Pashtun diaspora has also developed in the Arab Gulf States, primarily in the United Arab Emirate. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population.

 As the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan (anywhere between 42 and 60 percent of the population), Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Dehli Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi Dynasty which briefly replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur completely deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and before obtaining an independent Mughals state in the early 18th century, (6) which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani. (7) The Barakzai Dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires.

The Pashtuns are the world’s largest Segmintary Lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun Tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400. (8) There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history : Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousofzai, Imran Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, Hamid Karzai, and Ashraf Ghani. Looking for the origin of Pashtuns and the Afghans is something like exploring the source of the Amazon. 


The vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun Homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan, and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and the northern part of Balochistan Province. Additional Pashtun communities are located in western and northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit-Baltistan and Kashmir regions, and northwestern Punjab Province (Mianwali and Attack), Pakistan.  There are also sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of largely Pashtun ancestry. (9) Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are often referred to as Pathans. (10)


 Their modern past stretches back to the Dehli Sultanate, particularly the Hotak Dynasty and the Durrani Empire. The Hotaks were Ghilji tribesmen who rebelled against the Safavids and seized control over much of Persia from 1722 to 1729. (11) This was followed by the conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrrani who was a former high-ranking military commander under Nader Shah. He created the last Afghan Empire that covered most of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Indian Punjab, as well as the Kohistan and Khorasan provinces of Iran. (12)



The history of Pashtuns living in Pakistan is replete with lies and deceit right from the genises of Pakstan. The first massacre of Pashtuns in Pakistan is known as Babrra massacre which occurred on 12 August 1948 in the Charsadda District of the North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa), when hundreds of unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement were shot dead on the orders of the then Chief Minister Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan (13) who were protesting  against the promulgation of Public Safety Ordinance by the provincial governor, terminating  an elected government of Dr. Khan and the resulting arrests of Khudai Khidmatgar leaders and confiscations of property.(14)  600 people were killed and even larger numbers were injured .(15) (16)(17)


Pashtuns are considered to be a Royal Race with their predecessors like Ahmad Shah Abbdali, sher Shah Suri, Kushal Khan Khattack etc. Unfortunately, a long history of wars and the tensions between British and Sovients and later between Soviets and US made it a battle ground for foreign forces.

In recent histroy, After 9/11 and the subsequent invasion of Swat and FATA by Pakistani Military which resulted the massive displacement of Pashuns to Punjab and Sindh created tensions between local populations and Pashtuns. Pashtun were stereotyped as terrorist due to propaganda unleashed by Pakistani media and Military Establishment. Pashtuns have been caught between the military and militants. The military operations in FATA and KPK destroyed the economy and social fabric of Pashtun society, while the 33 billion dollars got from US were used to develop Punjab. Miran shah Bazar in Waziristan and Bara Market in Khyber Agency (grand Commercial centres in Tribal Areas) were razed to ground and looted by Pakistan Army. Pashtuns who were the main victims of terrorism and badly needed help felt betrayed by the Pakistani State by neglecting their needs and were furthr humiliated on daily basis by Military treating them as terrorists and criminals. This sense of deprivation boiled to the point that the Pashun educated youth turned out to streets to protest Against these atrocities like humiliation at military check-points, racial profiling, enforced disapreacnces, torture and arbitrary killings.


Pakistan is considered to be looting and plundering the resources of Pashtuns. According to Said Alam Mehsood, KPK is energy surplus Province but still suffers from hours of loadshedding on daily basis. KPK produce the cheapest hydel electricity of 5700 MW while its consumption needs are about 1500 MW. The cost of hydel electricity is 1.25 per unit Pakistani Rupees but the same electricity is re-sold to Pashtuns on 19 per unit Ruppees. Electricity is produced by PKP but its distribution is controlled by Punjab. Even the Royalty of Electricity produced is not given to Pashtuns. KPK has the potential to produce over 70000 MW of cheap electricity but central government controlled by Punjabi elite does not allow to exploit this potential.

PKP provide for more than half of the oil demand of Pakistan and produce gas also but the oil Refineries are established in Punjab, which deprive the Pashtuns of thousands of jobs and their right to exploit and further explore the Energy potentials in their region.

Similary, no royalty is given to Pashtuns for Uranium produced in Karak and Lakki Marwat Areas with the excuse that it is defence matter But when it comes to treating the cancer patients caused by radioactivity, Nothing is done in terms of compensation and treatment of cancers patients.

The vast natural resouces and forests of Pashtunistan are not exploited for the benifits of locals because the central government controlled by Punjabi elite does not want Pashtuns areas to be developed. Rather, militancy and radical Islam is propagated and imposed by establishing about 20000 madrassa (religious wahabi schools) to destroy already constructed infra-structure of tourism and economy of the region. The result of these anti-Pashtun policies of Punjabi elite is catastrophic for Pashuns social, economic, political and demographic conditions. With no jobs and perspective in thier own land, more then 10 million Pashtuns are forced to migrate to other countries to earn their livelihood.


Pashtuns want sovereignty over their land, resources, culture and language. They demand the right to live and human dignity. Pashtuns reject the 21st century colonialism in the form of CPEC, which will result in exploitation of their resources while the benifits will be taken by Punjab and China. Pashtuns want to be equal partners in CPEC and want control over their resources through re-negotiated contract in transparant and open negotiations. They have serious concerns about the arrival of China in the region and the way the contracts have been signed between Pakistan and China without the consent of the Pashtuns. CPEC in its present form is not acceptable to Pashtuns. The situation was further complicated due to arrival of China as a strong strategic partner of Pakistan by launching CPEC project. Due to CPEC, Pakistan with active connivance of China is bent upon the worst kind of oppression on both Balochs and Pashtuns. It is really ironic to note that the local populations especially the Balochs and Pashtuns who are suppose to be the main beneficiaries and stakeholders in this controversial project are deprived of the very basic amenities like clean drinking water, food, electricity, gas and jobs for survival.

On contrary, the nations who live in areas through which this gigantic and controversial project pass through are subject to worst kind of oppression and state terrorism by the Pakistani regime. Evidence shows that CPEC is constructed on the dead bodies of Balochs and Pashtuns while the Economic benefits are taken by a majority ethnic group Punjabis in Pakistan.

The main stakeholders like Pashtuns and Balochs who were expecting economic development and the resultant prosperity, economic development and social justice were subject to a worst type of state oppression. A war was imposed on them which resulted in grave human rights violations and crimes against humanity. A relentless and systematic campaign of abductions, arbitrary detentions, torture and extra-judicial killings of Balochs and Pashtuns is underway. The Pashtuns and Balochs are labelled as terrorists and the International community accepted this wrong Pakistani narrative as it is ; without any verification and investigation. The Balochs and Pashtuns were never given opportunity to present their side of story to the International community.

As Balochs are suffering right from the creation of Pakistan, they were always active politically and diplomatically to present their case to the International community through different channels. The Pashtuns have never been exposed to such high scale state oppression, death and racial profiling in the history of Pakistan. So, at this crucial juncture they are in need of help from other friendly nations like Afghanistan and oppressed Nations like Balochs to master the art of politics and diplomacy.  

The state atrocities in Balohistan are known to the world for quite a long time as it is happening right from the inception of Pakistan but the Pashtuns phenomenon of state oppression is quite recent. So, Pashtuns were in a dilemma ; how to convince the world that they are not terrorists ? Rather, they are victims of state terrorism.


Pashuns on both side of Afghanistan and Pakistan never accepted the bloody Durand line carved out by British Motimar Durnd in 1889 to use the area as buffer between British Empire and the Soviets. Revisiting the Duran line is the only solution the complex problems of Pashtuns in Pakistan. The recent decision of Pakistan to annex FATA into Pakistan is the result of pressure from PTM for the rights of Pashtuns and the long-standing demand of china to loot and plunder its resources and use it as as a gate-way to Central Asia.


The merger of FATA into KPK or Pakistan in a haste at gun-point also shows that Pakistan has sold it to China to loot and plunder its natural resources and use it as a gate-way to reach to Central Asia. FATA was a disputed territory between Afghanistan and British Empire and its fate cannot be decided unilaterallly without consulting Afghanistan. A rubber stamp Parliament of Pakistan on pressure from Military cannot decide the fate of FATA. The people of FATA have risen against this Merger with KPK and want the State of Pakistan to listen to them. FATA with its 30000 km of land and 15 million population and vaste natural resouces capable of being declared a sovereign Province of Pakistan.  If not heard by the State of Pakistan then the only solution to this dispute will be through refrendum under the UN. The people of FATA are ready to knock at every door including international organisations to protect their sovereignity and preserve the international agreements signed with them and Afghanistan who are a party to this dispute.


« Any act of Enforeced Disappearances is an offence to Human Dignity » states UN Declaration on protection of all persons from eforced disappearances.

According to PTM, about 75000 innocent Pashtuns have been killed, 32000 are missing and 2.5 millions have been internally displaced in the so-called war on Terrorism. 1200 Notables were killed who opposed the occupation of Tribal Areas by Taliban and Pakistan Army. Every educated and liberal Pashun is the target of Pakistan Army and its proxies Taliban. The disappeared persons are in 17 known and several unknown Internment Centres spread all over Pakistan, where they are humiliated and tortured. Most of them are suffering from psychological and mental problems. The missing persons who have been released recently are suffering from psychological problems. Independent observers believe that most of the missing persons have been killed and dumped in mass-graves. Pashtuns don’t trust Pakistan Army, the Pakistani government, the Judiciary and its puppet Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP). 

In March 2011 a Commission of Enquiry on Enforeced disappearances was Established to look into the problem of mission persons. But, it appears that it was also a ploy to hoodwink the masses in Pakistan. According to recently published finding of the Commission 4804 cases of missing persons were investigated in which 3274 Cases were treated and 1710 cases are still pending. Most of the missing persons are Pashtuns. It is ironic to note that the 3274 cases treated does not mean that these persons have been released or presented before the courts but it just mean that these missing persons are detected.

 The head of this commission Justice Javed Iqbal threw a bombshell when he revealed before a parliamentary Committee that more than 4000 mission persons have been sold by Presiden Musharaf Regime to foreign countries for dollars. This statement un-mask the lies and deceits of Pakistani Institutions including Judiciary.  If the honorable Justice is right then more than 8000 Persons are mission rather than 4804 as mentioned in the report of the Commission.

How can such gross human rights violations can happen in a society which claims to be a civilised society where the rule of law and supremacy of the constitution prevails. The said commission failed to fix the responsibility on individuels and organisation. Neither it filed reports against named individuels responsible directly or indirectly for disappearances.


Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM), in English called Pashtun Protection Movement emerged on the Pakistani side of the controversial Durand line where for the first time the Pashtun Youths under the leadership of Manzoor Pashteen started a non-violent struggle popularly known as   PASHTUN SPRING against the Military Establishment of Pakistan.

 On Feburary 10, 2018 in Islamabad, for the first time in the history of Pashtuns living in Pakistan, PTM organised a peaceful non-violent protest against the state atrocities, abductions, arbitrary detentions, torture and extra- judicial killing of Pashtuns. Just like Arab Spring, the Pashtun Spring fuelled mainly by social media, particularly Pashtun Times shook the very foundations of the state of Pakistan and the fear of the state was evaporated in the air.

Consequently, like domino effect, Pashtuns took to the streets in hundreds and thousands all across Pakistan from Peshawar to Karachi & Quetta to Swat to demand justice under the charismatic leadership of manzoor Pashteen, Ali Wazir, Mohsin Dawar and Said Alam Mahsood. This grassroots indigenous Movement is supported by young students, teachers, journalists, doctors, intellectuals, professors and human rights activists. It is secular in character and has brought a fundamental social change in a conservative Pashtun patriarchal tribal society by giving equal opportunity to women to participate in its gatherings and important meetings.

Manzoor Pashteen the 26 years old charismatic leader hailing from Waziritan, a tribal agency in south of KPK, is the architect of this movement.  Pashteen launched this Movemen in 2014 along with his 26 die-hard friends to raise their voice against human rights violation and the social, economic and political injustices meted out to Pashtuns in the last 4 decades by the state of Pakistan ; in two phases ; first in Eighties by arming and training Mujaheddin against Soviet Union in Afghanistan and then after 9/11 in a so-called war on terror. Both Pashtuns and U.S. were deceived and tricked by Pakistani Military Establishment, using Pashtuns as cannon fodder for war on terror while grabbing 33 billion dollars from US. These young leaders of PTM have grown up in war and are eye witness to the horrors of state sponsored terrorism and opression. They know every detail of what happend with Pashtuns and Pak institutions responsible for all their sufferings. They also know how to resolve the problem. These young men have blown away the wrong narrative of Pakistan’s War on terror, based on lies and deceit.

PASHTUN TAHAFFUZ MOVEMENT (PTM), worked without any formal organisational structure for some time but now it is in the process of organising its national, regional and International cadres. Contrary to Pashtun’s age old oral tradition, PTM recorded in details and shared through social media the deep pain of humiliation of Pashtuns, the agonies of war, displacements, abductions, torture, disappearances and killings both by military and its proxies likeTaliban.


According to (PTM) an estimated 320000 cases of Enforced Disappearances have been reported, while 8000 cases of missing persons have been confirmed.  Around 1000 missing persons have been released since the launch of the Movement. The success of the Movement can be guaged from fact that it forced the powerful Military to release innocent Pashtuns from its detention Centres. PTM has become a symbal of Pashtun dignity and sovereignity. People have immense confidence and trust in this movement.

 Why Pashtuns trust PTM ? The answer is simple and clear ; PTM is an indigenous grassroot level movement who’s argument is based on primary data collected from areas suffered most from war on terrorism.

To many independent observers the figures presented by PTM are astronomical. They have the right to think so as to Why Pashtuns did not report these cases of missing persons to the Pakistani media ? The response is simple. The Pakistani media is denied access to these war affected areas. In most of the cases media self- censored themselves due to fear. After the launch of the PTM in Feburary 2018, media has received strict orders from Military not to report their protest rallies and demonstrations. The main-stream Pakistani media blackout clearly indicates that it is accomplice in the false or fake narrative of military to counter terrorism. To boycott this non violent civil right Movement means that media is on the side of oppression and tyranny. It seems to be even worse as the Pakistani media has started a co-ordinated propaganda compaign against PTM to discredit it among the masses. The systematic anti-pashtun narrative and constant attacks on Pashtuns show that media was directly responsible for propagating the lies of the Pakistani Generals on war on terror and labelling Pashtuns as uncivilised, savage and warrior nation, supporting terrorism in the region. An EU based Mashal Radio which was reporting on the Pashtuns miseries was banned by Pakistan. To counter this fake narrative of Pakistani media and generals, the peaceful Pashtuns have no option but to boycott Pakistani media and strive to create their own.

Secondly, the families of the disappeared persons are threatened by Pakistani Military, ISI and Military intelligence not to report the cases of their missing persons ; otherwise other members of their families will face the same fate.

 Thirdly, Pashtuns don’t believe anymore in the civilian government as it is criminally abetting military establishment in these gross human rights violations.

 The most important factor leading to reporting of the cases of missing persons was the emergence of a credible young Pashtun leadership of PTM whom the Pashtuns trust. 

According to PTM, about 75000 innocent Pashtuns have been killed, 32000 are missing and 2.5 millions have been internally displaced in the so-called war on Terrorism. 1200 Notables were killed who opposed the occupation of Tribal Areas by Taliban and Pakistan Army.

 Not a single Taliban or Al-Qaeda leader was killed by Pakistani Military in these operations. Manzoor Pashteen says that since 9/11, 87 Taliban and Al Qaeda terrorists were killed 86 were killed by U.S. Drones and one named Abdullah Mahsood (brother of a serving major in Pakistani Military) blew himself in a suicide attack. Only civilian populations and cities were targeted in fake operation to get 33 billion dollars from US.

 According to a retired General Mr. Qamar Sulaiman who headed the Air-force Operations, “11600 bombs were dropped on FATA in 2008 only.” Pashtuns want to know as to who was the target of military jets like F-16, gunship helicopters and Artillery shells used in FATA by Pakistani Army ? If Al-Qaida and Taliban were not the target then who was the target of Military Operations in Pashtun dominated areas ? It is clear as a day that innocent Pashtuns were slaughtered, their homes and properties destroyed, their businesses crumbled and a systematic campaign of humiliation and torture was unleashed at military checkpoints installed on almost every kilometer. It seems that the war on terror was actually war against Pashtuns.

According to a prominent Pashtun leader Afrasiab Khattack,» the anger in Pashtun dominated areas in Pakistan is like a volcano which may explode and results in rebellion if capped with force ». 

 Ironically, despite dozens of check posts in FATA, Talibans entered the cities of Bannu and Derra Ismail Khan without any resistance from Army, Brocken two prisons situated in heavily armed Military garrisons and went away without any ressistance with hundreds of their comrades.

Taliban are living lavish lives in military cantonments and are given protocol at check points while ordinary citizens are subject to worst type of humiliation and disgrace by state institutions. Their dignity and honor is trampled under the foot on daily basis. The question raises as these check-posts are installed to humiliate ordinary citizens or protect Taliban to move around without any hurdle and attack innocent civilians with impunity ? Peace deals were made with Taliban and excessive use of force used against innocent people. Talibans are trained, provided with logistical support, and financed by Pakistan Army.

 According to a Retired General named Safdar, in a deal, a Taliban commander Nek Mohammed was paid R.S. 170 million by Pakistan Army. (Dawn) Monzoor Pashteen is on record that he himself saw a notorious Taliban Commander Khannan in Bannu Cantonment Area as guest of Pakistan Army. Ehsanullha Ehsan, a Taliban Spokeman is a royal guest of Army at Rawalpindi, headquarters of Pak Army.


Another eye opening revelator for Pashtun Nation was the pre-planned Attack on Army Public School Peshawar which resulted in killing of 144 and injuring of more 200 students. The students and their parents believe that the attack was engineered by Pakistan Army to use it as an excuse to start military operations in Tribal areas to get foothold and construct army garrisons in these areas. The school was situated in heavily protected Army Garrison area.  Not a single army personnel was injured or killed in this oepration. An army cammando who participated in this attack told media recently that this operation was organised and financed by Pakistan Army along with Taliban. An army officer on duty told media that he was in contact with his son inside the school on mobile crying for help but the Army personnel at the entrance door did not allow him to enter to save his child.

Even the taliban, involved in the terrorist attack told media that they were forced to killl some children when Army violated the preplanned agreement by attacking them ; but most of the children were killed by Army later. Fazal Advocat an ardent human rights defender who’s son was killed in the attack blame army for the attack and demand the establishment of Judicial Commission to inquire about the role of Army in the massacre. Enayat Khan Pashteen who was hanged for APC attack was disappeared by Pakistan Army from his hometown in 2010. The question arisis as to how a person disapperad by Army personels in 2010 can attack a school in 2014.

The Military involvement is further proved by the fact that Ehsanullah Ehsan, a Taliban spokesman who accepted the killing of APC children is now a VIP guest of the Pakistan Army.  All these facts show the double standards of the Military establishment, which is responsible for the genocide of the Pashtuns. This massacre was used as an excuse to occupy FATA. Subsequently, Parliament of Pakistan was forced on gunpoint to pass an amendement to merger FATA with KPK without the consent of local Tribesmen.

These are important questions which need to be answered. Pashtuns don’t trust Pakistan Army, the Pakistani government, the Judiciary and its puppet Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP). 

The auther is himself witness to all the agonies and humiliations suffered by Pashuns. Pashtuns know very well how the Pakistan Army installed Taliban in FATA. The tribesmen were disarmed in first, then they were told not to resist Taliban who were deployed in camps all around FATA and provided with training, arms and finances. The tribesmen were first killed by these Talibans and then humiliated, abducted, tortured and killed by Pakistan Army.

Main demands of PTM.

  1. Pashtuns want their right to LIFE and live with dignity.
  2. Pashtuns want peace in their region and request Pakistan Army to stop fake oparations and stop supporting Taliab.
  3. Stop enforced disapearances, abductions, torture and Killing of Pashtuns.
  4.  De-mine FATA region to protect the ordinary civilians including children and women from being injured and killed.
  5.  Arrest and try in courts a police officer Rao Anwar who killed Naqeebullah Mahsood and more than 400 persons in extra judicial encounters.
  6.  Release or present before the courts all the missing persons.
  7. Stop humiliation and torture of civilians on military check-posts in FATA.
  8. Establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate the enforeced disapearances and extra-judicial killings of Pashtuns in Pakistan.
  9. Demand the installation of UN Peace Keeping Forece in FATA to protect Pashtuns from Taliban and Pak Army massacre.

Pashtuns request, UN Committee and/or Working Group on Enforcement Disappearances, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International to investigate the cases of missing persons. To exhort the government of Pakistan to stop these atrocities and bring the culprits to justice. To demand the government of Pakistan to present the missing persons, languishing in detention centres before the courts.

We demand the protection of the leaders and all the worker of the Pashtun Protection Movement. As evidence shows that some non-scrupulous state proxies including Taliban or even Pakistan Army are directly bent on harming or killing them which will plunge the country into chaos.


Ali Wazir, another prominent leader of the Movement lost 13 members of his family. His house and commercial properties were razed to ground in the so-called war on terror. His only fault was that he and his father was against Taliban’s deployment at Waziristan by Pakistan Army.

  1.  “Afghan and Afghanistan”Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (Firishta). “History of the Mohamedan Power in India”. Persian Literature in Translation. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  3. Jump up^ “Afghanistan: Glossary”British Library. Retrieved 15 March 2008.

“Ethnic map of Afghanistan” (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, StratforNational Geographic Society. 2003. Retrieved 24 October 2010.


 Lewis, Paul M. (2009). “Pashto, Northern”SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.

6.  Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Retrieved 17 October 2010.

7. Louis DupreeNancy Hatch Dupree; et al. “Last Afghan empire”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 September 2010.

8. (a) Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Retrieved 17 October 2010

 (b)Jump up^ Syed Saleem Shahzad (20 October 2006). “Profiles of Pakistan’s Seven Tribal Agencies”. Retrieved 22 April 2010.

9. (a)  “Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001”. Census of India. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.

(b)  “Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India”. Khyber.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.

10.  Cyril Glassé; Huston Smith (2003). The New Encyclopædia of IslamRowman Altamira. The Pashto-speaking tribesman who live in Afghanistan, where they are one of the main ethnic groups, and in Pakistan, where they are generally called by the variant term Pathan (Hindi and Urdu).

11.  Edward G. Browne, M.A., M.B. “A Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500–1924), Chapter IV. An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)”. London: Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 9 September 2010.

12.  Louis DupreeNancy Hatch Dupree; et al. “Last Afghan empire”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 10 September 2010.